Electrochemical disinfection
Nitrate is directly reduced at the cathode to innocuous nitrogen gas.

Formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and others is recognized as the major drawback of drinking water disinfection based on chlorination. In this project, we are investigating electrochemical disinfection of drinking water using graphene sponge electrodes. As graphene coating has very low electrocatalytic activity towards chloride, the formation of DBPs is completely avoided. The nanostructured surface of graphene-based sponge electrodes enables the killing of the bacteria and viruses via multiple mechanisms, such as electroporation, disinfection via the in situ formed reactive oxygen species (e.g., O3), and electrosorption and direct electron transfer at the anode surface.